While the agreements are maintained, the recent massive mobilization of troops, tanks, tanks and air defence facilities, very close to the LAC, violates the conditions. Since the collision in the Galwan Valley on June 15, the army has authorized its local commanders to take appropriate action when situations develop and shots have recently been fired into the air, the first on the LAC since 1975. Thousands of troops and weapons continue to be deployed in the immediate vicinity, a few hundred meters away in some places, so that the chances of an accidental or accidental escalation that can lead to a larger confrontation, remain high. Singh said that in response to “China`s action, our armed forces have also carried out appropriate counter-interventions in these areas to ensure that India`s borders are fully protected.” The term “LAC” was legally recognized in the Salino-Indian agreements signed in 1993 and 1996. The 1996 agreement states that “no activity by both parties shall cross the line of effective control.” [8] However, Clause 6 of the 1993 Agreement on Peacekeeping and Calm along the effective line of control in Indian border areas states that “both parties agree that references to the effective line of control of this agreement do not affect their respective positions on the issue of borders.” [9] Lake Pangong Tso is visible near the India-China border in Ladakh. File Photo Credit: AP The use of firearms in the LAC is strictly regulated by the 1993, 1996 and 2005 agreements. In addition, the 1993 and 1996 agreements require that both parties strictly respect the LAC pending a definitive solution to the border issue. As part of these agreements, India and China are committed to clarifying and confirming the LAC in order to reach a common understanding of alignment. However, little progress has been made since 2003. So far, the two parties have exchanged only cards in the central sector, which, due to “differences in perception,” has led to overlapping requirements in several places. In 1947, at the time of independence, Aksai Chin was part of India. After independence in 1947, the Indian government established its official border to the west, including the Aksai Chin, in a manner similar to the Ardagh-Johnson lineage.

India`s basis for defining the border is “mainly due to long use and habit.” [28] Unlike the Johnson Line, India has not claimed the northern areas near Shahidulla and De Khotan. From the Karakorum Pass (which is not disputed), the Indian claim line extends northeast of the Karakorum Mountains, north of the salt plains of Aksai Chin, to establish a border near the Kunlun Mountains and integrate part of the Karakash and Yarkand River basins. From there, it passes east along the Kunlun Mountains, before turning southwest through the salt plains of Aksai Chin, the Karakorum Mountains, and then Lake Pangong. [13] The Bhutan-Doclam region at the Sikkim-China-Bhutan Trijunction, disputed by China, which supports Bhutan by India, has been excluded from this list, see also the China-India Border Standoff in 2017 at Doklam and Nathu La and Cho La Clashes in Sikkim in 2017. Five bilateral agreements between India and China to settle border disputes were signed on 11 April 2005 in New Delhi, available in the AMF contract database in English, Chinese and Hindi. The English text of the agreement is also contained in the Indian treatment base MEA. Article 1 states that “differences in the issue of borders should not affect the overall development of bilateral relations. Both sides will resolve the border issue through peaceful and friendly consultations.

The 1996 dispute settlement agreement included “confidence-building measures” and the effective line of control.